Country

4111 – Judges

Judges adjudicate civil and criminal cases and administer justice in courts of law. Judges preside over federal and provincial courts.

  • Illustrative example(s)
    • chief justice
    • county court judge
    • Court of Queen's Bench justice
    • district court judge
    • family court judge
    • federal trial court justice
    • provincial court of appeal justice
    • small claims court judge
    • superior court justice
    • Supreme Court justice
  • All Examples
  • administrative judge
  • appellate court judge
  • associate chief justice
  • chief justice
  • county court judge
  • county judge
  • Court of Queen's Bench justice
  • deputy justice
  • district and surrogate court judge
  • district court judge
  • family court judge
  • federal court justice
  • federal court justice - trial division
  • Federal Court of Appeal justice
  • federal trial court justice
  • judge - law
  • justice
  • juvenile court judge
  • magistrate court judge
  • probate court judge
  • provincial court judge
  • provincial court of appeal justice
  • provincial supreme court justice
  • puisne judge
  • small claims court judge
  • superior court justice
  • Supreme Court justice
  • Supreme Court of Canada justice
  • Tax Court judge
  • trial court judge
  • youth court judge
  • Exclusion(s)
    • Administrative tribunal judges (See 0411 Government managers - health and social policy development and program administration)
    • Citizenship court judges (See 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)
    • Justices of the Peace (See 1227 Court officers and justices of the peace)
  • Main duties

Judges perform some or all of the following duties:

  • Preside over courts of law, interpret and enforce rules of procedure and make rulings regarding the admissibility of evidence
  • Instruct the jury on laws that are applicable to the case
  • Weigh and consider evidence in non-jury trials and decide legal guilt or innocence or degree of liability of the accused or defendant
  • Pass sentence on persons convicted in criminal cases and determine damages or other appropriate remedy in civil cases
  • Grant divorces and divide assets between spouses
  • Determine custody of children between contesting parents and other guardians
  • Enforce court orders for access or support
  • Supervise other judges and court officers.

Judges may specialize in particular areas of law such as civil, criminal or family law.

  • Employment requirements
    • Extensive experience as a lawyer or as a professor of law with continuous membership in the bar association is usually required.
    • Membership in good standing with a provincial or territorial law society or bar association is required.
    • Judges are appointed by federal or provincial cabinets.
    • Those appointed to more senior positions in a court, such as chief justice, usually have experience as judges in that court.

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